Minimally Invasive Pulmonary Valve Replacement In Adolescents
Sameh M. Said, Massimo Griselli.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
BACKGROUND: Median sternotomy has been the standard for pulmonary valve replacement in patients with free pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular enlargement. With the introduction of transcatheter therapy, the search for an alternate to sternotomy is mandated. We present our early experience with a limited anterior left thoracotomy approach. METHODS: We used a left anterior minithoracotomy in six male patients (15±1.94 years of age) who developed progressive right ventricular enlargement due to chronic pulmonary regurgitation. RESULTS: Primary diagnoses were tetralogy of Fallot in five patients and pulmonary atresia with intact septum in another. Four patients had previous median sternotomy with transannular patch repair. The mean right ventricular end-diastolic volume index was 189±27.13 ml/m2. The procedure was feasible in all patients. All patients had satisfactory adult size pulmonary bioprosthesis (25 or 27 mm valve), with a mean peak gradient of 18±2.40 mmHg across the prosthesis at discharge. All patients were extubated intraoperatively at the end of the procedure, and required no intraoperative transfusions. There were no early or late mortalities. Early morbidities included left hemidiaphragm paralysis in one patient, and resternotomy for prosthetic valve endocarditis in one. One patient required late reoperation for a common femoral artery pseudoaneurysm. CONCLUSIONS: Minimally invasive access for pulmonary valve replacement is feasible in both primary and repeat settings, through a limited anterior left minithoracotomy in absence of intracardiac shunts and need for other concomitant cardiac procedures. Longer-term studies with larger number of patients are needed to compare the efficacy of this approach to standard sternotomy.
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