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Thoracic Surgeons Prefer a 3D Camera to 2D during Simulation Tests.
Gwyn Beattie, Cristiano Spadaccio, Jennifer Whiteley, John Butler.
Golden Jubilee National Hospital, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

OBJECTIVE: 3D camera systems are becoming more popular in surgery and while 3D use in cinema and home entertainment is established, thoracic surgery is only beginning to explore its potential. This explored subjective and objective differences in a 3D camera compared to a 2D camera system.
METHODS: A 3D stack system was utilised for a wetlab training day with cardiothoracic surgeons. 5 trainees and one consultant elected to take part in the trial. The system is capable of switching between 2D and 3D images without any change in the physical system. A laparoscopic simulator was fitted with a bead and peg simulation. One person throughout operated the camera. Half the candidates used 2D then 3D to complete the task, with the other candidates starting with 3D then rerunning the simulation with 2D. 3D was provided with polarising passive glasses. All candidates took an online survey with the results collated in a spreadsheet.
RESULTS: One candidate was an independent VATs operator, three had 1-5 cases as an operator and 2 had experience manipulating the camera during VATs cases. The mean time for the bead transfer was 41seconds for the 2D versus 18seconds for the 3D. There were lower collisions and drops in the 3D tests and shorter time to acquire an object or move to a location.
100% Agreed or strongly agreed that they prefer the 3D camera, the 3D camera tests were easier than 2D during the simulations, and they felt more precise when using the 3D camera.
CONCLUSIONS: 3D cameras reduce the time for the bead transfer test by 55%. Candidates were able to localise in space and directly pick up objects without searching thereby reducing the time and looking more efficient with their movement. All surgeons indicated a subjective benefit in economy of movement, precision and preferred a 3D camera system. 3D cameras with the natural haptic feedback and the economy of VATS instruments may be the next leap forward in Thoracic surgery.

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